Kindling might represent a heuristic model [to be tested] for understanding the etiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).
Kindling occurs when an organism is exposed repeatedly to an initially sub-threshold stimulus re-sulting in hypersensitivity and spontaneous seizure-like activity.
Among patients with ME/CFS:
• Chronically repeated low-intensity stimulation due to an infectious illness might cause kindling of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
• Kindling might also occur by high-intensity stimulation (e.g., brain trauma) of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis.